This is an editorial article. It has no abstract.
Two different models accounting for the dependences of χ and g interaction parameters on both temperature and composition have been applied to different ternary polymer systems (TPS) solvent(1)/polymer(2)/polymer(3). The analyzed TPS have consisted on ten different polymer mixtures in chloroform as common solvent that can specifically interact via hydrogen bond. Experimental ternary phase diagrams determined by liquid chromatography were taken from literature. The application of the two models to the experimental data have served to obtain χij and gij interaction parameters for all the binary ij (ij = 12, 13, 23) interactions established between the three components of the system, with simplified mathematical procedures. The results have shown a fair agreement between the calculated and the literature values, at least when the model containing an empirical entropy correction is used. Moreover, the evaluated interaction parameters follow the expected behaviour as the content of the H-donor polymer in the mixture is raised and are also in good accordance with experimental viscometric data.
Synthesis and characterization of novel water-soluble polyamide based on spermine and aspartic acid as a potential gene delivery vehicle
B. M. Viola, T. E. Abraham, D. S. Arathi, E. Sreekumar, M. R. Pillai, T. J. Thomas, C. K. S. Pillai
Vol. 2., No.5., Pages 330-338, 2008
Vol. 2., No.5., Pages 330-338, 2008
We developed a novel and convenient method for the synthesis of a potentially safe non-viral gene delivery vehicle based on the cationic block copolymer of spermine and aspartic acid (ASSP) and coupled it with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The copolymer ASSP was prepared by direct polycondensation in the ionic liquid, butylmethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, using triphenyl phosphite as the condensing agent under mild reaction conditions. The highly hydrophobic ASSP was transformed into a water soluble hydrophilic micelle by coupling ASSP with polyethylene glycol (PEG) using the same ionic liquid and 1,1-carbonyl diimidazole as the condensing agent without harsh conditions. The polycationic ASSP-PEG was then used to condense calf thymus and plasmid deoxyribonuclceic acids (DNAs) in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) to get a series of block ionomer complexes with various charge ratios. The physicochemical properties of the copolymer micelle and the DNA polyplexes were studied using fourier transform-infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size measurements. It was observed that the DNA was condensed to compact particles by its interaction with the copolymer. Since DNA condensation to nano/micrometer sized particles is essential for gene delivery, our results indicate a potential use of the copolymer for gene delivery applications.
In order to improve thermo mechanical properties of cured epoxy resin, hydroxyl terminated polyethersulfone (PES) and N,N′-bismaleimido-4,4′-diphenyl methane (BMI) were incorporated to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) type epoxy resin and cured with diaminiodiphenylmethane (DDM). The resulting hybrid matrices, in the form of castings, were characterized for their mechanical properties like tensile, flexural and impact strength. Differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis of the matrices were also performed to determine the glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the matrix systems. The results obtained from mechanical and thermal studies indicated that the incorporation of polyethersulfone into epoxy resin improved the toughness and thermal stability of the systems. This is attributed to the formation of interpenetration polymer networks (IPNs) composed of the epoxy network and the linear PES. The incorporation of BMI into polyethersulfone modified epoxy systems increased thermal stability, glass transition temperature, tensile and flexural properties and decreased the impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy studies of polyethersulfone modified epoxy and BMI incorporated polyethersulfone modified epoxy systems exhibit homogeneous morphology confirming efficient chemical interaction and formation of intercrosslinked network structure.
Blocked isocyanates were successfully encapsulated into polystyrene and hydroxyl and amine functionalized polymeric nanospheres via emulsion polymerization. The nanocapsules were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electronic microscopy. The blocked isocyanates generated free isocyanate functionality upon thermal annealing of nanocapsules. This research establishes a novel encapsulating method for release and retention of free isocyanates in aqueous media. These nanocapsules can provide active isocyanates in coatings and adhesive applications, and represent a novel application of nanoencapsulated materials for controlled or delayed active material utilization.
A new way of improving the heat dissipating ability and PV efficiency of the solar cells by enhancing the thermal conductivity of the rear EVA layer was reported. The thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, degree of curing of the EVA encapsulating composites and the PV efficiency of the solar cells are investigated. Filling with the thermal conductive fillers enhances the thermal conductivity of the composites effectively. The thermal conductivity of the filler influences significantly the thermal conductivity of the composite at high filler loading (greater than 20 vol%). Thermal conductivities of the composites filled with SiC, ZnO or BN reach respectively 2.85, 2.26 and 2.08 W/m•K at filler content of 60 vol%. The composites filled with ZnO or BN exhibit superior electrical insulation to those filled with SiC or Al2O3. ZnO can promote the cross-linking reaction of the EVA matrix. The test results indicated that the EVA composite encapsulating rear films filled with thermal conductive fillers are able to improve the PV efficiency and the heat dissipating ability of the solar cell effectively.
This work presents an insight into the effect of preparation procedure and the filler content on both electrical and mechanical properties of a nanocomposite system. For the preparation of the nanocomposites diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was used with triethylenetetramine (TETA) as a curing agent. As fillers carbon black (CB) nanoparticles with size from 25 to 75 nm were used. The characterization was done using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy (DRS), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and electrical conductivity measurements. The dependence of the dynamic mechanical and dielectric parameters (E′, E″, tanδ, ε', ε″, σ and Tg) is associated with the filler content and is controlled by the employed curing conditions. An increase in electrical conductivity, which is observed at about 1% w/w of carbon black, indicates the creation of conducting paths and is associated with the Maxwell Wagner Sillars (MWS) relaxation, probably due to the formation of aggregated microstructures in the bulk composite..
In order to improve the physical properties of elastomers and to get more insight into the polymer dynamics close to filler interphases a carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) was filled with up to 10 phr of layered silicate and investigated by dielectric and dynamic-mechanical analysis as well as by IR spectroscopy. Three relaxation processes have been detected beside the electrode polarization effect obtained in dielectric measurements. The relaxation process at low temperatures can be assigned to the β-process due to the rotational motion of side groups. Its temperature dependence follows an Arrhenius-like behaviour and there is no significant change in the shape of this process with the incorporation of filler. The glass transition at medium temperature shows a Vogel-Fulcher-dependence but seems to be independent of filler as well. At higher temperatures a new relaxation process was detected which is probably due to the formation of zinc-carboxyl-clusters. In dielectric and dynamic-mechanical measurements this process increases with increasing loading of organoclay and is shifted to higher temperature.
Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) was reinforced with three different types of carbon black viz. semi-reinforcing furnace (SRF), high abrasion furnace (HAF) and intermediate super abrasion furnace (ISAF). The solvent transport by the composites were analyzed using benzene, toluene and xylene as penetrant molecules. The observed cure characteristics and solvent uptake behaviour of the composites has been explained on the basis of particle size of the filler and bound rubber content. The mode of transport in all the cases was found to be anomalous. A sorption-desorption-resorption (S-D-RS) experiment was carried out to study the physical changes in the polymer matrix, associated with the transport of the solvents through the composites.