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In this study, Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were functionalized with copolymer or terpolymer bearing glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) moieties making them suitable for potential applications as drug delivery systems (DDS). For this purpose, the surface of magnetic nanoparticles was first coated with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) by a silanization reaction to introduce reactive methacrylate groups onto the surface. Subsequently, monomers were grafted onto the surface of modified-MPS particles via two polymerization methods: seed emulsion (GMA, divinylbenzene, DVB, and styrene, S) and distillation – precipitation (GMA and DVB). The obtained nanocomposite particles were characterized by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), DR UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance ultraviolet – visible spectroscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) combined with EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis and DLS (dynamic light scattering). FTIR spectroscopy showed that indeed a polymer – Fe3O4@MPS composite was obtained. TEM and EDS analysis showed that the seed emulsion method resulted in nanosized, 100 nm Fe3O4@MPS core/polymer shell NPs, forming long chains. On the contrary, the distillation – precipitation method caused the formation of an inverted structure, i.e. polymer core coated by a Fe3O4@MPS shell, which exhibited a very coarse size distribution varying from several hundreds to over 2 µm.
In this study, nucleation and growth of bone-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) mineral in modified simulated body fluids (m-SBF) were induced on chitosan (CS) substrates, which were prepared by spin coating of chitosan on Ti substrate. The m-SBF showed a two fold increase in the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions compared to SBF, and the post-NaOH treatment provided stabilization of the coatings. The calcium phosphate/chitosan composite prepared in m-SBF showed homogeneous distribution of approximately 350 nm-sized spherical clusters composed of octacalcium phosphate (OCP; Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O) crystalline structure. Chitosan provided a control over the size of calcium phosphate prepared by immersion in m-SBF, and post-NaOH treatment supported the binding of calcium phosphate compound on the Ti surface. Post-NaOH treatment increased hydrophilicity and crystallinity of carbonate apatite, which increased its potential for biomedical application.
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized by polydopamine (PDA)-coating and mixed with natural rubber (NR) via latex compounding. Compared with pristine MWCNTs, the surface of MWCNT-PDA was covered by an amorphous and nanometer-scale PDA layer which had a large amount of oxygenic and nitric functional groups. So the MWCNT-PDA showed a perfect dispersion in NR matrix. The tensile strength of NR/MWCNT-PDA (5 phr) composites is 28.6 MPa, compared with the pure NR, which increased by 42%. For the electrical properties, when the content of MWCNTPDA or MWCNTs is 2 phr, the volume resistivity of NR/MWCNT-PDA composites falls to about 2.7·109 Ω·cm, compared with 3.3·1013 Ω·cm of NR/MWCNT composites. The thermal conductivity of NR composites increased only by 28.2% when 5 phr MWCNT-PDA was added. A model proposed by Nan was used to calculate the thermal conductivity of NR/MWCNT composites, and the calculated values were compared with the experimental values, the results showed that the interface thermal resistance is the main reason why MWCNTs could not significantly increase the thermal conductivity of natural rubber.
Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) are potentially applicable in lithium-ion batteries with high safety, low cost and good performance. Here, to take advantages of ionic conductivity and selectivity of borate ester-functionalized small molecules as well as structural properties of polymer nanocomposite, a strategy of immobilizing as-synthesized polyethylene glycol-borate ester/lithium fluoride (B-PEG/LiF) in graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) (GO/PVA) to prepare a PEM is put forward. Chemical structure of the PEM is firstly characterized by 1H-, 11B- and 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, respectively, and then is further investigated under consideration of the interactions among PVA, B-PEG and LiF components. The immobilization of B-PEG/LiF in PVA-based structure is confirmed. As the interactions within electrolyte components can be further tuned by GO, ionic conductivity (~10–3 S·cm–1), lithium-ion transfer number (~0.49), and thermal (~273 °C)/electrochemical (>4 V) stabilities of the PEM can be obtained, and the feasibility of PEMs applied in a lithium-ion battery is also confirmed. It is believed that such PEM is a promising candidate as a new battery separator.
In this paper, a cost-effective and eco-friendly method to improve mechanical performance in continuous carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix composites is presented. Unsized fiber fabric preforms are coated with self-assembling sugarcane bagasse microfibrillated cellulose, and undergo vacuum-assisted liquid epoxy resin infusion to produce solid laminates after curing at ambient temperature. Quasi-static tensile, flexural and short beam testing at room temperature indicated that the stiffness, ultimate strength and toughness at ultimate load of the brand-new two-level hierarchical composite are substantially higher than in baseline, unsized fiber-reinforced epoxy laminate. Atomic force microscopy for height and phase imaging, along with scanning electron microscopy for the fracture surface survey, revealed a 400 nm-thick fiber/matrix interphase wherein microfibrillated cellulose exerts strengthening and toughening roles in the hybrid laminate. Market expansion of this class of continuous fiber-reinforced-polymer matrix composites exhibiting remarkable mechanical performance/cost ratios is thus conceivable.
This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0) and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III) ion, and an additional chloride ligand) have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and magnetic susceptibility measurements). Fe(III) remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III) can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.
Gelatin nanoparticles (Gb-NP) and layer-by-layer (LBL) coated NPs were developed to modify a Ti substrate surface to prevent implant-associated infections. Vancomycin (Van) was loaded into these materials to obtain GbV-NP and LBL-GbV-NP. The size of the GbV-NP (277.4±1.4 nm) was smaller than that of LBL-GbV-NP (710.2±4.6 nm) but both had a spherical shape. These coated materials showed no cytotoxicity and facilitated better cell proliferation by osteoblast-like cells compared to the bare Ti. This was probably due to the roughness of the coated NP that enhanced cell attachement to the surface. Both coated materials showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The release of Van from GbV-NP was higher from LBL-GbV-NP and this corresponded to their antibacterial activity. Furthermore the release profile of Van showed a sustained release. Thus both materials should be able to prolong the protection of implant-associated infections to the bone.